author        = "Castel Duaso, Lourdes and Barriuso Vargas, Juan and
                       Martín Santafé, María",
      title         = "{Artrópodos parásitos asociados a carpóforos del
                       género Tuber}",
      year          = "2012",
      note          = "In recent years the production of wild truffles has
                       dropped alarmingly, and at the moment not even the
                       establishment of a large number of trees plantations of 
                       the gender Quercus mycorrhizal whith this fungus have
                       achieved that date back production. Moreover we find that
                       the quality is seriously influenced by the presence of
                       arthropod parasites. Not much information is had of the
                       major diseases which affect the truffle or how to control
                       it. In this research we have studied arthropod populations
                       present in the most economically important species in Spain
                       different samples of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum), black
                       truffle (Tuber melanosporum) and Tuber brumale, in order to
                       identify and assess the degree of parasitism of the species
                       they affect. 5 different species have been found: Leiodes
                       cinnamomea, Ommatoilus sabulosus, Megaselia sp, Lycoriella
                       sp and Helomyza tuberivora. Of these last 3 it has been
                       managed to reproduce their entire life cycle of Tuber and
                       Pleurotus ostreatus. Ommatoilus sabulosus, Megaselia sp.
                       and Lycoriella. are new records in terms of parasitism
                       associated with sporocarps of the gender Tuber. The
                       dipterans Megaselia sp, Lycoriella Sp. and Helomyza
                       tuberivora are pests that cause severe losses in the
                       product quality, but they also help the fungus to spread
                       its spores, along with they are indicators of its presence
                       in the truffle tree burning. The presence of Ommatoiulus
                       sabulosusis associated as a secondary pest, because that
                       parasitizes T. melanosporum when it is mature, using
                       pre-built galleries formerly made by- other parasites,
                       causing serious drillings that devalue economically and the
                       quality of-the product. It has been found that, unlike
                       other published studies in relation to Leiodes cinnamomea
                       beetle, larvae are parasites of both, T. aestivum and T.
                       melanosporum. This is a difference with adults witch only
                       appear in T. melanosporum, causing both (larvae and adult)
                       severe damage to the fruiting bodies. The results obtained
                       are intended to bring some light to the parasitism
                       associated with the gender Tuber fruiting bodies to
                       establish in future studies, possible strategies of
                       controlling these arthropods in the truffle, thus avoiding
                       losses in both economic and in the so appreciated quality
                       of the product.",