Repositorio Zaguan - Universidad de Zaragoza 

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      author       = "Barriuso Vargas, Juan and Martín Santafé, María and
                      Castel Duaso, Lourdes",
      title        = "Artrópodos parásitos asociados a carpóforos del género
      month        = "Dic",
      year         = "2012",
      note         = "In recent years the production of wild truffles has dropped
                      alarmingly, and at the moment not even the establishment of
                      a large number of trees plantations of  the gender Quercus
                      mycorrhizal whith this fungus have achieved that date back
                      production. Moreover we find that the quality is seriously
                      influenced by the presence of arthropod parasites. Not much
                      information is had of the major diseases which affect the
                      truffle or how to control it. In this research we have
                      studied arthropod populations present in the most
                      economically important species in Spain different samples of
                      summer truffle (Tuber aestivum), black truffle (Tuber
                      melanosporum) and Tuber brumale, in order to identify and
                      assess the degree of parasitism of the species they affect.
                      5 different species have been found: Leiodes cinnamomea,
                      Ommatoilus sabulosus, Megaselia sp, Lycoriella sp and
                      Helomyza tuberivora. Of these last 3 it has been managed to
                      reproduce their entire life cycle of Tuber and Pleurotus
                      ostreatus. Ommatoilus sabulosus, Megaselia sp. and
                      Lycoriella. are new records in terms of parasitism
                      associated with sporocarps of the gender Tuber. The
                      dipterans Megaselia sp, Lycoriella Sp. and Helomyza
                      tuberivora are pests that cause severe losses in the product
                      quality, but they also help the fungus to spread its spores,
                      along with they are indicators of its presence in the
                      truffle tree burning. The presence of Ommatoiulus
                      sabulosusis associated as a secondary pest, because that
                      parasitizes T. melanosporum when it is mature, using
                      pre-built galleries formerly made by- other parasites,
                      causing serious drillings that devalue economically and the
                      quality of-the product. It has been found that, unlike other
                      published studies in relation to Leiodes cinnamomea beetle,
                      larvae are parasites of both, T. aestivum and T.
                      melanosporum. This is a difference with adults witch only
                      appear in T. melanosporum, causing both (larvae and adult)
                      severe damage to the fruiting bodies. The results obtained
                      are intended to bring some light to the parasitism
                      associated with the gender Tuber fruiting bodies to
                      establish in future studies, possible strategies of
                      controlling these arthropods in the truffle, thus avoiding
                      losses in both economic and in the so appreciated quality of
                      the product.",
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