Longitudinal Effects Of Swimming On Bone Mass, Structure And Strength

Gomez Bruton, A. (Universidad de Zaragoza) ; Gonzalez-Aguero, A. (Universidad de Zaragoza) ; Gomez-Cabello, A. ; Lozano-Berges, G. (Universidad de Zaragoza) ; Matute-Llorente, A. (Universidad de Zaragoza) ; Casajus, J.A. (Universidad de Zaragoza) ; Vicente-Rodriguez, G. (Universidad de Zaragoza)
Longitudinal Effects Of Swimming On Bone Mass, Structure And Strength
Resumen: PURPOSE: To investigate the changes over a swimming season in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone strength and bone structure in adolescent swimmers and compared them to normo-active controls (CG).
METHODS: BMD and BMC were measured longitudinally (8 months) by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry at the whole body, lumbar spine and non-dominant hip. Bone strength was measured at the midshaft radius and tibia with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Swimmers were divided into two groups; swimmers that swam and performed an extra-weight bearing sport (SWI-SPORT; n=11) and swimmers that only swam (SWI; n=23). Both groups were compared between them and to CG (n=28). ANCOVA for repeated measures x 2 (time) were performed between pre- and post-intervention to determine the effects of swimming on BMC and BMD values adjusting by change in height and subtotal lean, initial age and final Tanner stage and calcium intake for DXA values. For pQCT the same analyses were performed adjusting by change in object length, initial age and final Tanner stage.
RESULTS: Eight months of swimming training had no effect on BMD or BMC, as no differences were found between SWI-PURE and CG acquisition. Nevertheless, practicing an extra-weight bearing sport in addition to swimming seemed to positively stimulate bone mass acquisition as SWI-SPORT was the only group that improved all measured skeletal sites and also a group by time interaction was found for the trochanter and total hip BMD when comparing SWI-SPORT to CG (p<0.05). Regarding pQCT measures, no group by time interactions were found for the radius. For the tibia, SWI-SPORT presented higher improvements in cortical thickness, resistance to fracture load (X-axis), and polar strain index than CG (all group by time interactions p<0.05). SWI-PURE also presented higher improvements in polar strain index when compared to CG (group by time interaction p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Swimming seems to be a neutral sport to practice regarding BMD and BMC acquisition. Nevertheless, it might entail some minor improvements in bone strength. Practicing a weight bearing sport in addition to swimming improves both bone mass acquisition and bone strength.

Idioma: Inglés
DOI: 10.1249/01.mss.0000488029.90882.32
Año: 2016
Publicado en: MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE 48, 5 (2016), 1007
ISSN: 0195-9131

Factor impacto JCR: 4.141 (2016)
Categ. JCR: SPORT SCIENCES rank: 6 / 81 = 0.074 (2016) - Q1 - T1
Factor impacto SCIMAGO: 2.052 - Orthopedics and Sports Medicine (Q1) - Sports Science (Q1) - Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation (Q1)

Financiación: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/MICINN/DEP2011-29093
Tipo y forma: Congress (Published version)
Área (Departamento): Área Educación Física y Depor. (Dpto. Fisiatría y Enfermería)

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