Primate innate immune responses to bacterial and viral pathogens reveals an evolutionary trade-off between strength and specificity
Resumen: Despite their close genetic relatedness, apes and African and Asian monkeys (AAMs) differ in their susceptibility to severe bacterial and viral infections that are important causes of human disease. Such differences between humans and other primates are thought to be a result, at least in part, of interspecies differences in immune response to infection. However, because of the lack of comparative functional data across species, it remains unclear in what ways the immune systems of humans and other primates differ. Here, we report the whole-genome transcriptomic responses of ape species (human and chimpanzee) and AAMs (rhesus macaque and baboon) to bacterial and viral stimulation. We find stark differences in the responsiveness of these groups, with apes mounting a markedly stronger early transcriptional response to both viral and bacterial stimulation, altering the transcription of ~40% more genes than AAMs. Additionally, we find that genes involved in the regulation of inflammatory and interferon responses show the most divergent early transcriptional responses across primates and that this divergence is attenuated over time. Finally, we find that relative to AAMs, apes engage a much less specific immune response to different classes of pathogens during the early hours of infection, up-regulating genes typical of anti-viral and anti-bacterial responses regardless of the nature of the stimulus. Overall, these findings suggest apes exhibit increased sensitivity to bacterial and viral immune stimulation, activating a broader array of defense molecules that may be beneficial for early pathogen killing at the potential cost of increased energy expenditure and tissue damage. Copyright
Idioma: Inglés
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015855118
Año: 2021
Publicado en: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118, 13 (2021), e2015855118
ISSN: 0027-8424

Tipo y forma: Article (Published version)
Área (Departamento): Área Física Teórica (Dpto. Física Teórica)

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