Geographic distribution of the V1016G knockdown resistance mutation in Aedes albopictus: a warning bell for Europe

Pichler, Verena ; Caputo, Beniamino ; Valadas, Vera ; Micocci, Martina ; Horvath, Cintia ; Virgillito, Chiara ; Akiner, Mustafa ; Balatsos, Georgios ; Bender, Christelle ; Besnard, Gilles ; Bravo-Barriga, Daniel ; Bueno-Mari, Rubén ; Collantes, Francisco ; Delacour-Estrella, Sarah (Universidad de Zaragoza) ; Dikolli, Enkelejda ; Falcuta, Elena ; Flacio, Eleonora ; García-Pérez, Ana L. ; Kalan, Katja ; Kavran, Mihaela ; L’Ambert, Gregory ; Lia, Riccardo P. ; Marabuto, Eduardo ; Medialdea, Raquel ; Melero-Alcibar, Rosario ; Michaelakis, Antonios ; Mihalca, Andrei ; Mikov, Ognyan ; Miranda, Miguel A. ; Müller, Pie ; Otranto, Domenico ; Pajovic, Igor ; Petric, Dusan ; Rebelo, Maria Teresa ; Robert, Vincent ; Rogozi, Elton ; Tello, Ana ; Zitko, Toni ; Schaffner, Francis ; Pinto, Joao ; della Torre, Alessandra
Geographic distribution of the V1016G knockdown resistance mutation in Aedes albopictus: a warning bell for Europe
Resumen: Background
Colonization of large part of Europe by the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is causing autochthonous transmission of chikungunya and dengue exotic arboviruses. While pyrethroids are recommended only to reduce/limit transmission, they are widely implemented to reduce biting nuisance and to control agricultural pests, increasing the risk of insurgence of resistance mechanisms. Worryingly, pyrethroid resistance (with mortality < 70%) was recently reported in Ae. albopictus populations from Italy and Spain and associated with the V1016G point mutation in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene conferring knockdown resistance (kdr). Genotyping pyrethroid resistance-associated kdr mutations in field mosquito samples represents a powerful approach to detect early signs of resistance without the need for carrying out phenotypic bioassays which require availability of live mosquitoes, dedicated facilities and appropriate expertise.

Methods
Here we report results on the PCR-genotyping of the V1016G mutation in 2530 Ae. albopictus specimens from 69 sampling sites in 19 European countries.

Results
The mutation was identified in 12 sites from nine countries (with allele frequencies ranging from 1 to 8%), mostly distributed in two geographical clusters. The western cluster includes Mediterranean coastal sites from Italy, France and Malta as well as single sites from both Spain and Switzerland. The eastern cluster includes sites on both sides of the Black Sea in Bulgaria, Turkey and Georgia as well as one site from Romania. These results are consistent with genomic data showing high connectivity and close genetic relationship among West European populations and a major barrier to gene flow between West European and Balkan populations.

Conclusions
The results of this first effort to map kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus on a continental scale show a widespread presence of the V1016G allele in Europe, although at lower frequencies than those previously reported from Italy. This represents a wake-up call for mosquito surveillance programs in Europe to include PCR-genotyping of pyrethroid resistance alleles, as well as phenotypic resistance assessments, in their routine activities.

Idioma: Inglés
DOI: 10.1186/s13071-022-05407-3
Año: 2022
Publicado en: Parasites and Vectors 15 (2022), 280 [7 pp.]
ISSN: 1756-3305

Factor impacto JCR: 3.2 (2022)
Categ. JCR: TROPICAL MEDICINE rank: 6 / 24 = 0.25 (2022) - Q1 - T1
Categ. JCR: PARASITOLOGY rank: 9 / 37 = 0.243 (2022) - Q1 - T1

Factor impacto CITESCORE: 6.6 - Medicine (Q1) - Immunology and Microbiology (Q2) - Veterinary (Q1)

Factor impacto SCIMAGO: 0.961 - Parasitology (Q1) - Infectious Diseases (Q2)

Financiación: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EUR/COST-Action/CA17108
Tipo y forma: Article (Published version)
Área (Departamento): Área Sanidad Animal (Dpto. Patología Animal)

Creative Commons You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.


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