Model-based impact evaluation of new tuberculosis vaccines in aging populations under different modeling scenarios: the case of China
Resumen: IntroductionThe slow descent in TB burden, the COVID-19 pandemic, along with the rise of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, seriously threaten TB control and the goals of the End TB strategy. To fight back, several vaccine candidates are under development, with some of them undergoing the phases 2B and 3 of the development pipeline. The impact of these vaccines on the general population needs to be addressed using disease-transmission models, and, in a country like China, which last year ranked third in number of cases worldwide, and where the population is aging at a fast pace, the impact of TB vaccination campaigns may depend heavily upon the age of targeted populations, the mechanistic descriptions of the TB vaccines and the coupling between TB dynamics and demographic evolution.MethodsIn this work, we studied the potential impact of a new TB vaccine in China targeting adolescents (15–19 y.o.) or older adults (60–64 y.o.), according to varying vaccine descriptions that represent reasonable mechanisms of action leading to prevention of disease, or prevention of recurrence, each of them targetting specific routes to TB disease. To measure the influence of the description of the coupling between transmission dynamics and aging in TB transmission models, we explored two different approaches to compute the evolution of the contact matrices, which relate to the spreading among different age strata.ResultsOur findings highlight the dependence of model-based impact estimates on vaccine profiles and the chosen modeling approach for describing the evolution of contact matrices. Our results also show, in line with previous modeling works, that older adult vaccination is a suitable option in China to reduce the incidence of TB as long as the vaccine is able to protect already exposed individuals.DiscussionThis study underscores the importance of considering vaccine characteristics and demographic dynamics in shaping TB control strategies. In this sense, older adult vaccination emerges as a promising avenue for mitigating TB transmission in China but also remarks the need for tailored intervention strategies aligned with demographic trends.
Idioma: Inglés
DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2024.1302688
Año: 2024
Publicado en: Frontiers in public health 12 (2024), 1302688 [11 pp.]
ISSN: 2296-2565

Financiación: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/DGA/B49-23R-NeuroBioSys
Financiación: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/DGA/E36-23R-FENOL
Financiación: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/MICINN/PID2019-106859GA-I00
Financiación: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/MICINN/PID2020-115800GB-I00
Financiación: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/MICINN/RYC-2017-23560
Tipo y forma: Artículo (Versión definitiva)
Área (Departamento): Área Física Teórica (Dpto. Física Teórica)

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