Holm oak (quercus ilex subsp. ballota (desf.) samp.) bark aqueous ammonia extract for the control of invasive forest pathogens
Resumen: Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) bark is a commonly used remedy to treat gastrointestinal disorders, throat and skin infections, hemorrhages, and dysentery. It has also been previously reported that its methanol extracts possess antibacterial activity, which can be related to the richness of Quercus spp. extracts in phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and tannins. However, there is no information on the antifungal (including oomycete) properties of the bark from Q. ilex or its subspecies (ilex and ballota). In this work, we report the characterization of the aqueous ammonia extract of its bark by FTIR and GC-MS and the results of in vitro and ex situ inhibition tests against three phytopathogens. The main phytochemical components identified were inositols (19.5%), trans-squalene (13%), 4-butoxy-1-butanol (11.4%), gulopyranose (9.6%), lyxose (6.5%), 2,4-dimethyl-benzo[H]quinoline (5.1%), catechol (4.5%), and methoxyphenols (4.2%). The efficacy of the extract in controlling forest phytopathogens was tested in vitro against Fusarium circinatum (responsible for pitch canker of Pinus spp.), Cryphonectria parasitica (which causes chestnut blight), and Phytophthora cinnamomi (which causes ‘root and crown rot’ in a variety of hosts, including Castanea, conifers, Eucalyptus, Fagus, Juglans, Quercus, etc.), obtaining EC90 values of 322, 295, and 75 μg·mL−1, respectively, much lower than those attained for a commercial strobilurin fungicide (azoxystrobin). The extract was further tested ex situ against P. cinnamomi on artificially inoculated, excised stems of ‘Garnem’ almond rootstock, attaining complete protection at a dose of 782 μg·mL−1. The results suggest that holm oak bark extract may be a promising source of bioactive compounds against invasive forest pathogens, including the oomycete that is causing its decline, the so-called ‘seca’ in Spain.
Idioma: Inglés
DOI: 10.3390/ijms231911882
Año: 2022
Publicado en: International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, 19 (2022), 11882 [16 pp.]
ISSN: 1661-6596

Factor impacto JCR: 5.6 (2022)
Categ. JCR: BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY rank: 66 / 285 = 0.232 (2022) - Q1 - T1
Categ. JCR: CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY rank: 52 / 178 = 0.292 (2022) - Q2 - T1

Factor impacto CITESCORE: 7.8 - Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (Q1) - Computer Science (Q1) - Chemistry (Q1) - Chemical Engineering (Q1) - Medicine (Q1)

Factor impacto SCIMAGO: 1.154 - Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q1) - Physical and Theoretical Chemistry (Q1) - Computer Science Applications (Q1) - Inorganic Chemistry (Q1) - Spectroscopy (Q1) - Organic Chemistry (Q1) - Molecular Biology (Q2) - Catalysis (Q2)

Tipo y forma: Article (Published version)
Área (Departamento): Area Ingeniería Agroforestal (Dpto. CC.Agrar.y Medio Natural)
Área (Departamento): Proy. investigación JFA (Dpto. CC.Agrar.y Medio Natural)
Área (Departamento): Área Producción Vegetal (Dpto. CC.Agrar.y Medio Natural)

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